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Win98/network issue
I'm at a client's machine right now. It's running Win98SE, and connects to an NT 4.0 server. At least...it did, the first time. Which leads to the problem. It used to be set up in such a way that, when the user first turned on the machine and booted up Win98, the Client for MS Networks logon screen would come up for the network before the icons/tray/etc. loaded.

Looking for good dedicated server hosts
After a year of growth, our website, BiggerPockets.com has begun to stretch the limits of our current shared host, IPowerWeb. While we're gaining in size, our host has had more problems, and downtime that I can deal with. It is so bad that there tech support is getting close to #1 on the speed dial.

Strange network printer behaviour
I'm doing some IT work for a company that has a small network of four workstations and one server. Two of the workstations are new (one's a month old, and one was just installed yesterday) running Win XP.

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Sun To Introduce Galaxy Servers
Today, Sun Microsystems is expected to introduce its new line of 64-bit network servers, which are code-named Galaxy, and use dual-core Opteron processors from AMD.

When you start your CCNA studies, a lot of questions come to mind! Here are the five most common questions...

Cisco IOS Software Modularity to Increase Network Availability

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Frame Relay Switch
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How Will Your Network Be Compromised?
Every time I attend a "Security Guru's" meeting, I'm amazed by how much time and effort is spent on discussing the complex hacking and computer compromise of computer networks and systems.


IP Default - Gateway

By Chris Bryant

One point of confusion for some CCNA and CCNP candidates is the difference between configuring a static default route and using the Cisco routing command ip default-network.

At first glance, they appear to do the same thing. Both configure a destination to which packets should be routed if there is no more specific route in the routing table.

The major difference between these two options is that configuring a static default route only defines a default route for the router you're configuring it on, while ip default-network will propagate the route via its routing protocol.

Let's examine the routing tables of a hub-and-spoke network using the ip default-network command. R1 is the hub and R2 and R3 are the spokes. They are directly connected via the network /24, and each has a loopback with a 32-bit mask that are numbered according to the router number (, etc.) RIP is running on all three routers and the loopbacks are advertised.

R1 has another serial interface with the IP address /24, and this network has been flagged as a default network with the command ip default-network . It is not being advertised by RIP.

The routing protocol will then advertise this route. With RIP, the default network is advertised as . (With IGRP, it appears as the network number, but is marked as an IGRP External route. ) This route has been designated a candidate default route on R1, as we see with the asterisk next to the /24 network (code table removed for brevity):

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R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set is subnetted, 1 subnets
C is directly connected, Loopback0
R [120/1] via, 00:00:11, Serial0
R [120/1] via, 00:00:11, Serial0 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C is directly connected, BRI0
C is directly connected, Serial0
* is subnetted, 1 subnets
C is directly connected, Serial1
On R2 and R3, a default RIP route is now seen (code tables again deleted):

R2#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is to network

R [120/1] via, 00:00:00, Serial0.213 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C is directly connected, Loopback0
R [120/2] via, 00:00:00, Serial0.213 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C is directly connected, BRI0
C is directly connected, Serial0.213
R* [120/1] via, 00:00:00, Serial0.213

R3#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is to network

R [120/1] via, 00:00:27, Serial0.31
R [120/2] via, 00:00:28, Serial0.31 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C is directly connected, Loopback0 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C is directly connected, Serial0.31
R* [120/1] via, 00:00:28, Serial0.31

And the default route works, since we can ping from both R2 and R3. Since they have no other match in their routing tables, they use the default route.


Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds:
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 68/68/68 ms


Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds:
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 68/68/68 ms

When deciding whether to use a default static route or a default network, keep in mind that if you want the routing protocol to propagate the default route, the ip default-network command will do that for you. But if you want only the local router to have the default route, a static IP route is the way to go.

About the Author:
Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933, is the owner of The Bryant Advantage. The Bryant Advantage offers dozens of FREE CCNA and CCNP tutorials and articles. The Bryant Advantage sells the world's most comprehensive CCNA Study Guide, and my exclusive Binary Math and Subnetting Mastery book. My $299 CCNA Online Fast Track is the world's fastest-growing CCNA course. Visit http://www.thebryantadvantage.com today!

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